In English nouns rarely change form, even to indicate gender. As a general rule, only nouns referring to people and some animals reflect gender in their form. By the same token, unlike many other languages, the adjectives modifying nouns will remain unchanged.
However, certain nouns — especially those referring to people - may have different forms to indicate masculin or feminine usage:
The same can be said of certain male and female animals:
In other cases, the word "male" or "female" is added, if it is considered necessary to be specific:
Note: If the gender of the person or animal is known, one will generally use the pronoun "he" or "she" to refer to it, as appropriate. When the gender is left unstated, the pronoun "he" is generally used when speaking of people, or "it" when speaking of animals. Some objects are also considered to be gendered in certain usages: some people may refer to a boat or a car as "she".
Certain nouns (especially the names of professions) are traditionally associated with men or women, in which case one signals exceptions to the tradition by adding "woman" (or "lady") or "man" to the term:
As a general rule, the plural is formed by adding "-s" to the singular form of nouns.
Nouns ending in "s" or "s" will generally take the ending "-es" :
Words ending in "y" will generally take the ending "-ies" in place of the "y":
Certain words have very irregular forms in the plural:
A few nouns are invariable or collective, always indicating a plural meaning:
Certain nouns are generally capitalized, including: days of the week and months; names of holidays, cities (or states, etc.) and religions; nouns of nationality: